How do I return the response from an asynchronous

2019-08-20 20:34发布

I have a function foo which makes an Ajax request. How can I return the response from foo?

I tried returning the value from the success callback as well as assigning the response to a local variable inside the function and returning that one, but none of those ways actually return the response.

function foo() {
    var result;

    $.ajax({
        url: '...',
        success: function(response) {
            result = response;
            // return response; // <- I tried that one as well
        }
    });

    return result;
}

var result = foo(); // It always ends up being `undefined`.

30条回答
地球回转人心会变
2楼-- · 2019-08-20 20:44

→ For a more general explanation of async behaviour with different examples, please see Why is my variable unaltered after I modify it inside of a function? - Asynchronous code reference

→ If you already understand the problem, skip to the possible solutions below.

The problem

The A in Ajax stands for asynchronous . That means sending the request (or rather receiving the response) is taken out of the normal execution flow. In your example, $.ajax returns immediately and the next statement, return result;, is executed before the function you passed as success callback was even called.

Here is an analogy which hopefully makes the difference between synchronous and asynchronous flow clearer:

Synchronous

Imagine you make a phone call to a friend and ask him to look something up for you. Although it might take a while, you wait on the phone and stare into space, until your friend gives you the answer that you needed.

The same is happening when you make a function call containing "normal" code:

function findItem() {
    var item;
    while(item_not_found) {
        // search
    }
    return item;
}

var item = findItem();

// Do something with item
doSomethingElse();

Even though findItem might take a long time to execute, any code coming after var item = findItem(); has to wait until the function returns the result.

Asynchronous

You call your friend again for the same reason. But this time you tell him that you are in a hurry and he should call you back on your mobile phone. You hang up, leave the house and do whatever you planned to do. Once your friend calls you back, you are dealing with the information he gave to you.

That's exactly what's happening when you do an Ajax request.

findItem(function(item) {
    // Do something with item
});
doSomethingElse();

Instead of waiting for the response, the execution continues immediately and the statement after the Ajax call is executed. To get the response eventually, you provide a function to be called once the response was received, a callback (notice something? call back ?). Any statement coming after that call is executed before the callback is called.


Solution(s)

Embrace the asynchronous nature of JavaScript! While certain asynchronous operations provide synchronous counterparts (so does "Ajax"), it's generally discouraged to use them, especially in a browser context.

Why is it bad do you ask?

JavaScript runs in the UI thread of the browser and any long running process will lock the UI, making it unresponsive. Additionally, there is an upper limit on the execution time for JavaScript and the browser will ask the user whether to continue the execution or not.

All of this is really bad user experience. The user won't be able to tell whether everything is working fine or not. Furthermore, the effect will be worse for users with a slow connection.

In the following we will look at three different solutions that are all building on top of each other:

  • Promises with async/await (ES2017+, available in older browsers if you use a transpiler or regenerator)
  • Callbacks (popular in node)
  • Promises with then() (ES2015+, available in older browsers if you use one of the many promise libraries)

All three are available in current browsers, and node 7+.


ES2017+: Promises with async/await

The ECMAScript version released in 2017 introduced syntax-level support for asynchronous functions. With the help of async and await, you can write asynchronous in a "synchronous style". The code is still asynchronous, but it's easier to read/understand.

async/await builds on top of promises: an async function always returns a promise. await "unwraps" a promise and either result in the value the promise was resolved with or throws an error if the promise was rejected.

Important: You can only use await inside an async function. Right now, top-level await isn't yet supported, so you might have to make an async IIFE (Immediately Invoked Function Expression) to start an async context.

You can read more about async and await on MDN.

Here is an example that builds on top of delay above:

// Using 'superagent' which will return a promise.
var superagent = require('superagent')

// This is isn't declared as `async` because it already returns a promise
function delay() {
  // `delay` returns a promise
  return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
    // Only `delay` is able to resolve or reject the promise
    setTimeout(function() {
      resolve(42); // After 3 seconds, resolve the promise with value 42
    }, 3000);
  });
}


async function getAllBooks() {
  try {
    // GET a list of book IDs of the current user
    var bookIDs = await superagent.get('/user/books');
    // wait for 3 seconds (just for the sake of this example)
    await delay();
    // GET information about each book
    return await superagent.get('/books/ids='+JSON.stringify(bookIDs));
  } catch(error) {
    // If any of the awaited promises was rejected, this catch block
    // would catch the rejection reason
    return null;
  }
}

// Start an IIFE to use `await` at the top level
(async function(){
  let books = await getAllBooks();
  console.log(books);
})();

Current browser and node versions support async/await. You can also support older environments by transforming your code to ES5 with the help of regenerator (or tools that use regenerator, such as Babel).


Let functions accept callbacks

A callback is simply a function passed to another function. That other function can call the function passed whenever it is ready. In the context of an asynchronous process, the callback will be called whenever the asynchronous process is done. Usually, the result is passed to the callback.

In the example of the question, you can make foo accept a callback and use it as success callback. So this

var result = foo();
// Code that depends on 'result'

becomes

foo(function(result) {
    // Code that depends on 'result'
});

Here we defined the function "inline" but you can pass any function reference:

function myCallback(result) {
    // Code that depends on 'result'
}

foo(myCallback);

foo itself is defined as follows:

function foo(callback) {
    $.ajax({
        // ...
        success: callback
    });
}

callback will refer to the function we pass to foo when we call it and we simply pass it on to success. I.e. once the Ajax request is successful, $.ajax will call callback and pass the response to the callback (which can be referred to with result, since this is how we defined the callback).

You can also process the response before passing it to the callback:

function foo(callback) {
    $.ajax({
        // ...
        success: function(response) {
            // For example, filter the response
            callback(filtered_response);
        }
    });
}

It's easier to write code using callbacks than it may seem. After all, JavaScript in the browser is heavily event-driven (DOM events). Receiving the Ajax response is nothing else but an event.
Difficulties could arise when you have to work with third-party code, but most problems can be solved by just thinking through the application flow.


ES2015+: Promises with then()

The Promise API is a new feature of ECMAScript 6 (ES2015), but it has good browser support already. There are also many libraries which implement the standard Promises API and provide additional methods to ease the use and composition of asynchronous functions (e.g. bluebird).

Promises are containers for future values. When the promise receives the value (it is resolved) or when it is cancelled (rejected), it notifies all of its "listeners" who want to access this value.

The advantage over plain callbacks is that they allow you to decouple your code and they are easier to compose.

Here is a simple example of using a promise:

function delay() {
  // `delay` returns a promise
  return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
    // Only `delay` is able to resolve or reject the promise
    setTimeout(function() {
      resolve(42); // After 3 seconds, resolve the promise with value 42
    }, 3000);
  });
}

delay()
  .then(function(v) { // `delay` returns a promise
    console.log(v); // Log the value once it is resolved
  })
  .catch(function(v) {
    // Or do something else if it is rejected 
    // (it would not happen in this example, since `reject` is not called).
  });

Applied to our Ajax call we could use promises like this:

function ajax(url) {
  return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
    var xhr = new XMLHttpRequest();
    xhr.onload = function() {
      resolve(this.responseText);
    };
    xhr.onerror = reject;
    xhr.open('GET', url);
    xhr.send();
  });
}

ajax("/echo/json")
  .then(function(result) {
    // Code depending on result
  })
  .catch(function() {
    // An error occurred
  });

Describing all the advantages that promise offer is beyond the scope of this answer, but if you write new code, you should seriously consider them. They provide a great abstraction and separation of your code.

More information about promises: HTML5 rocks - JavaScript Promises

Side note: jQuery's deferred objects

Deferred objects are jQuery's custom implementation of promises (before the Promise API was standardized). They behave almost like promises but expose a slightly different API.

Every Ajax method of jQuery already returns a "deferred object" (actually a promise of a deferred object) which you can just return from your function:

function ajax() {
    return $.ajax(...);
}

ajax().done(function(result) {
    // Code depending on result
}).fail(function() {
    // An error occurred
});

Side note: Promise gotchas

Keep in mind that promises and deferred objects are just containers for a future value, they are not the value itself. For example, suppose you had the following:

function checkPassword() {
    return $.ajax({
        url: '/password',
        data: {
            username: $('#username').val(),
            password: $('#password').val()
        },
        type: 'POST',
        dataType: 'json'
    });
}

if (checkPassword()) {
    // Tell the user they're logged in
}

This code misunderstands the above asynchrony issues. Specifically, $.ajax() doesn't freeze the code while it checks the '/password' page on your server - it sends a request to the server and while it waits, immediately returns a jQuery Ajax Deferred object, not the response from the server. That means the if statement is going to always get this Deferred object, treat it as true, and proceed as though the user is logged in. Not good.

But the fix is easy:

checkPassword()
.done(function(r) {
    if (r) {
        // Tell the user they're logged in
    } else {
        // Tell the user their password was bad
    }
})
.fail(function(x) {
    // Tell the user something bad happened
});

Not recommended: Synchronous "Ajax" calls

As I mentioned, some(!) asynchronous operations have synchronous counterparts. I don't advocate their use, but for completeness' sake, here is how you would perform a synchronous call:

Without jQuery

If you directly use a XMLHTTPRequest object, pass false as third argument to .open.

jQuery

If you use jQuery, you can set the async option to false. Note that this option is deprecated since jQuery 1.8. You can then either still use a success callback or access the responseText property of the jqXHR object:

function foo() {
    var jqXHR = $.ajax({
        //...
        async: false
    });
    return jqXHR.responseText;
}

If you use any other jQuery Ajax method, such as $.get, $.getJSON, etc., you have to change it to $.ajax (since you can only pass configuration parameters to $.ajax).

Heads up! It is not possible to make a synchronous JSONP request. JSONP by its very nature is always asynchronous (one more reason to not even consider this option).

查看更多
ら.Afraid
3楼-- · 2019-08-20 20:44

Of course there are many approaches like synchronous request, promise, but from my experience I think you should use the callback approach. It's natural to asynchronous behavior of Javascript. So, your code snippet can be rewrite a little different:

function foo() {
    var result;

    $.ajax({
        url: '...',
        success: function(response) {
            myCallback(response);
        }
    });

    return result;
}

function myCallback(response) {
    // Does something.
}
查看更多
贪生不怕死
4楼-- · 2019-08-20 20:45

Let's see the forest first before looking at the trees.

There are many informative answers with great details here, I won't repeat any of them. The key to programming in JavaScript is having first the correct mental model of overall execution.

  1. Your entry point(s) is executed as the result of an event. For example, a script tag with code is loaded into the browser. (Accordingly, this is why you may need to be concerned with the readiness of the page to run your code if it requires dom elements to be constructed first, etc.)
  2. Your code executes to completion--however many asynchronous calls it makes--without executing any of your callbacks, including XHR requests, set timeouts, dom event handlers, etc. Each of those callbacks waiting to be executed will sit in a queue, waiting their turn to be run after other events that fired have all finished execution.
  3. Each individual callback to an XHR request, set timeout or dom the event once invoked will then run to completion.

The good news is that if you understand this point well, you will never have to worry about race conditions. You should first and foremost thing of how you want to organize your code as essentially the response to different discrete events, and how you want to thread them together into a logical sequence. You can use promises or higher level new async/await as tools to that end, or you can roll your own.

But you shouldn't use any tactical tools to solve a problem until you are comfortable with the actual problem domain. Draw a map of these dependencies to know what needs to run when. Attempting an ad-hoc approach to all these callbacks is just not going to serve you well.

查看更多
淡お忘
5楼-- · 2019-08-20 20:46

The following example I have written shows how to

  • Handle asynchronous HTTP calls;
  • Wait for response from each API call;
  • Use Promise pattern;
  • Use Promise.all pattern to join multiple HTTP calls;

This working example is self-contained. It will define a simple request object that uses the window XMLHttpRequest object to make calls. It will define a simple function to wait for a bunch of promises to be completed.

Context. The example is querying the Spotify Web API endpoint in order to search for playlist objects for a given set of query strings:

[
 "search?type=playlist&q=%22doom%20metal%22",
 "search?type=playlist&q=Adele"
]

For each item, a new Promise will fire a block - ExecutionBlock, parse the result, schedule a new set of promises based on the result array, that is a list of Spotify user objects and execute the new HTTP call within the ExecutionProfileBlock asynchronously.

You can then see a nested Promise structure, that lets you spawn multiple and completely asynchronous nested HTTP calls, and join the results from each subset of calls through Promise.all.

NOTE Recent Spotify search APIs will require an access token to be specified in the request headers:

-H "Authorization: Bearer {your access token}" 

So, you to run the following example you need to put your access token in the request headers:

var spotifyAccessToken = "YourSpotifyAccessToken";
var console = {
    log: function(s) {
        document.getElementById("console").innerHTML += s + "<br/>"
    }
}

// Simple XMLHttpRequest
// based on https://davidwalsh.name/xmlhttprequest
SimpleRequest = {
    call: function(what, response) {
        var request;
        if (window.XMLHttpRequest) { // Mozilla, Safari, ...
            request = new XMLHttpRequest();
        } else if (window.ActiveXObject) { // Internet Explorer
            try {
                request = new ActiveXObject('Msxml2.XMLHTTP');
            }
            catch (e) {
                try {
                  request = new ActiveXObject('Microsoft.XMLHTTP');
                } catch (e) {}
            }
        }

        // State changes
        request.onreadystatechange = function() {
            if (request.readyState === 4) { // Done
                if (request.status === 200) { // Complete
                    response(request.responseText)
                }
                else
                    response();
            }
        }
        request.open('GET', what, true);
        request.setRequestHeader("Authorization", "Bearer " + spotifyAccessToken);
        request.send(null);
    }
}

//PromiseAll
var promiseAll = function(items, block, done, fail) {
    var self = this;
    var promises = [],
                   index = 0;
    items.forEach(function(item) {
        promises.push(function(item, i) {
            return new Promise(function(resolve, reject) {
                if (block) {
                    block.apply(this, [item, index, resolve, reject]);
                }
            });
        }(item, ++index))
    });
    Promise.all(promises).then(function AcceptHandler(results) {
        if (done) done(results);
    }, function ErrorHandler(error) {
        if (fail) fail(error);
    });
}; //promiseAll

// LP: deferred execution block
var ExecutionBlock = function(item, index, resolve, reject) {
    var url = "https://api.spotify.com/v1/"
    url += item;
    console.log( url )
    SimpleRequest.call(url, function(result) {
        if (result) {

            var profileUrls = JSON.parse(result).playlists.items.map(function(item, index) {
                return item.owner.href;
            })
            resolve(profileUrls);
        }
        else {
            reject(new Error("call error"));
        }
    })
}

arr = [
    "search?type=playlist&q=%22doom%20metal%22",
    "search?type=playlist&q=Adele"
]

promiseAll(arr, function(item, index, resolve, reject) {
    console.log("Making request [" + index + "]")
    ExecutionBlock(item, index, resolve, reject);
}, function(results) { // Aggregated results

    console.log("All profiles received " + results.length);
    //console.log(JSON.stringify(results[0], null, 2));

    ///// promiseall again

    var ExecutionProfileBlock = function(item, index, resolve, reject) {
        SimpleRequest.call(item, function(result) {
            if (result) {
                var obj = JSON.parse(result);
                resolve({
                    name: obj.display_name,
                    followers: obj.followers.total,
                    url: obj.href
                });
            } //result
        })
    } //ExecutionProfileBlock

    promiseAll(results[0], function(item, index, resolve, reject) {
        //console.log("Making request [" + index + "] " + item)
        ExecutionProfileBlock(item, index, resolve, reject);
    }, function(results) { // aggregated results
        console.log("All response received " + results.length);
        console.log(JSON.stringify(results, null, 2));
    }

    , function(error) { // Error
        console.log(error);
    })

    /////

  },
  function(error) { // Error
      console.log(error);
  });
<div id="console" />

I have extensively discussed this solution here.

查看更多
Summer. ? 凉城
6楼-- · 2019-08-20 20:46

Short answer: Your foo() method returns immediately, while the $ajax() call executes asynchronously after the function returns. The problem is then how or where to store the results retrieved by the async call once it returns.

Several solutions have been given in this thread. Perhaps the easiest way is to pass an object to the foo() method, and to store the results in a member of that object after the async call completes.

function foo(result) {
    $.ajax({
        url: '...',
        success: function(response) {
            result.response = response;   // Store the async result
        }
    });
}

var result = { response: null };   // Object to hold the async result
foo(result);                       // Returns before the async completes

Note that the call to foo() will still return nothing useful. However, the result of the async call will now be stored in result.response.

查看更多
手持菜刀,她持情操
7楼-- · 2019-08-20 20:49

Short answer is, you have to implement a callback like this:

function callback(response) {
    // Here you can do what ever you want with the response object.
    console.log(response);
}

$.ajax({
    url: "...",
    success: callback
});
查看更多
登录 后发表回答